Summary of PSYCOLOQUY topic Lashley Hebb

Topic:
Title & AuthorAbstract
10(029) THE NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF LASHLEY AND HEBB
[University Press of America, 1998 xiv, 395 pp. ISBN: 0-761-81165-6]
Precis of Orbach on Lashley-Hebb
Jack Orbach
Department of Psychology
Queens College
Flushing, NY
U.S.A.

jorbach@worldnet.att.net
Abstract: Beginning in the 1920s, K. S. Lashley startled psychologists with his theories of the memory trace within the cerebral cortex. Using terms such as terms mass action, equipotentiality, and sensory/motor equivalence, Lashley presented evidence that the engram is widely distributed in the brain, and that unactivated synapses, like activated ones, seem to show evidence of learning. His research and nativistic theories made him world famous by 1929, when he was just 39. He spent his professional career searching for a mechanism for the reduplication of the engram. While his contemporaries tried to specify the locus of the engram in the brain, Lashley found it everywhere. He liked to quip that the problem is not to find where the trace is located, but where it is not. Lashley's student, D. O. Hebb, published his empiricistic theories in 1949, in "The Organization of Behavior," and the monograph created a sensation. Hebb used Lorente de No's reverberatory circuit to provide a mechanism to maintain activity in the cerebral cortex after the stimulus terminated, the so-called central autonomous process. This led him to the cell assembly, a complex reverberatory circuit that could be assembled by experience. Changes in resistance at the synapse with learning came to be called the Hebb synapse. That monograph was highly praised for the breadth of its treatment. The present book documents how Lashley anticipated Hebb's introduction of the reverberatory circuit by some 12 years. Lashley's Vanuxem Lectures of 1952 are printed for the first time, together with nine of his previously published theoretical papers. Lashley's and Hebb's theories are reviewed and reevaluated fifty years after publication of Hebb's monograph, and a systematic effort is made to compare and contrast the views of teacher and student.

Keywords: cell assembly, central autonomous process, engram, equipotentiality, Hebb, Hebbian learning, Lashley, localization, memory trace, nativism, reverberatory circuit, Vanuxem Lectures

10(045) THE SNARK IS STILL A BOOJUM
Book Review of Orbach on Lashley-Hebb
Daniel N. Robinson
Distinguished Research Professor & Professor of Psychology
Georgetown University
Washington, D. C. 20057

and

Visiting Professor of Psychology
Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah 84602

robinsdn@gunet.georgetown.edu
Abstract: This "living history" of the neuropsychological thinking of Lashley and Hebb provides the reader with useful, instructive and suggestive details on matters of priority, influence and perspective. Orbach's own expert knowledge of neuropsychology serves the reader well as the author assesses contemporary thinking in the brain sciences in light of the issues that so engaged the energies of Lashley and Hebb. But the greater service is bringing to print a number of Lashley's own lectures and essays (chiefly his Vanuxem Lectures) previously available only in special collections. Even the several previously published articles take on renewed importance as a result of Orbach's discussion and critical appraisals of contemporary thought.

Keywords: cell assembly, central autonomous process, engram, equipotentiality, Hebb, Hebbian learning, Lashley, localization, memory trace, nativism, reverberatory circuit, Vanuxem Lectures

10(052) NEUROPSYCHOLOGY AND NEUROPHILOSOPHY
Reply to Robinson on Orbach on Lashley-Hebb
Jack Orbach
Department of Psychology
Queens College
Flushing, NY
U.S.A.

jorbach@worldnet.att.net
Abstract: Are Lashley's and Hebb's Neuropsychological theories really theories? Do they solve any neurophilosophical problems?

Keywords: cell assembly, central autonomous process, engram, equipotentiality, Hebb, Hebbian learning, Lashley, localization, memory trace, nativism, reverberatory circuit, Vanuxem Lectures

10(053) CELL ASSEMBLIES: WHOSE IDEA?
Book Review of Orbach on Lashley-Hebb
Peter M. Milner
Department of Psychology
McGill University
1205 Dr. Penfield Ave.
Montreal, QC
CANADA H3A 1B1

Ps64@musica.mcgill.ca
Abstract: Orbach raises the possibility that Lashley anticipated the theory advanced by Hebb (1949) in his book The Organisation of Behaviour. According to Orbach, Lashley's publications provide evidence that he was thinking of a theory similar to Hebb's before about 1945, when Lashley first saw a draft of Hebb's book. Orbach reproduces a number of Lashley's papers which he believes provide support for this thesis. I consider the evidence far from convincing. Hebb's assemblies are learned representations of concepts. Lashley's resonators are innate aids to perception. Hebb's assemblies, but not Lashley's resonators, can be associated with each other in explaining thought.

Keywords: cell assembly, central autonomous process, engram, equipotentiality, Hebb, Hebbian learning, Lashley, localization, memory trace, nativism, reverberatory circuit, Vanuxem Lectures

10(056) HEBB'S CELL ASSEMBLIES; LASHLEY'S REVERBERATORY CIRCUITS
Reply to Milner on Orbach Lashley-Hebb
Jack Orbach
Department of Psychology
Queens College
Flushing, NY, 11367
U.S.A.

jorbach@worldnet.att.net
Abstract: What is the valid assignment of priorities to Lashley and Hebb for proposing neuropsychological mechanisms to sustain neural activity in the cerebral cortex?

Keywords: cell assembly, central autonomous process, engram, equipotentiality, Hebb, Hebbian learning, Lashley, localization, memory trace, nativism, reverberatory circuit, Vanuxem Lectures

10(061) THE UNLEARNED REVERBERATORY CIRCUIT:
LASHLEY'S LEGACY TO HEBB, AND HOW HEBB INVESTED IT
Book Review of Orbach on Lashley-Hebb
Don C. Donderi
Psychology Department
McGill University
Montreal, Quebec
Canada

donderi@hebb.psych.mcgill.ca
Abstract: Orbach (1998, 1999) combines a memoir of his experiences as a graduate student of both Karl S. Lashley and Donald Hebb, with a critical review of the differences between Lashley's and Hebb's theoretical use of recurrent neural circuits. Orbach also reprints nine of Lashley's important papers and adds four previously unpublished lectures that Lashley delivered in 1952. Although flawed by stylistic difficulties and one major omission, the book provides a clear contrast between the early use of recurrent circuits by Lashley and the later approach taken by Hebb.

Keywords: cell assembly, central autonomous process, engram, equipotentiality, Hebb, Hebbian learning, Lashley, localization, memory trace, nativism, reverberatory circuit, Vanuxem Lectures

10(063) LASHLEY'S UNLEARNED REVERBERATORY CIRCUIT;
HEBB'S ACQUIRED CELL ASSEMBLY
Reply to Donderi on Orbach on Lashley-Hebb
Jack Orbach
Department of Psychology
Queens College
Flushing, NY, 11367
U.S.A.

jorbach@worldnet.att.net
Abstract: Donderi (1999) finds the treatment of Hebb in (Orbach 1998) deficient because of the omission from consideration of Hebb's (1980) "Essay on Mind." However, my object was to review Hebb's 1949 contributions and to compare them with those of his teacher, Lashley, who died in 1958. In my book, the story more or less ends there.

Keywords: cell assembly, central autonomous process, engram, equipotentiality, Hebb, Hebbian learning, Lashley, localization, memory trace, nativism, reverberatory circuit, Vanuxem Lectures

10(076) MAKING ROOM FOR INSIGHT AND INCREMENTALISM IN THE SAME BRAIN:
THE CONTRIBUTION OF D. O. HEBB
Book Review of Orbach on Lashley-Hebb
Stephen Kaplan
Department of Psychology
and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
University of Michigan
525 E. University
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1109
USA

Leeann L. Fu
Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
University of Michigan
1301 Beal
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2122
USA

skap@umich.edu lfu@umich.edu
Abstract: Although their theories were in many respects similar, Orbach identifies two areas of difference between Lashley and Hebb: stimulus generalization and the nature of the learning process. Orbach favors Lashley; we point to reasons for believing that Hebb's position is the stronger one. Convinced that Hebb's theory was derived from Lashley and at the same time inferior to Lashley's, Orbach feels it necessary to explain that Hebb had greater impact because he was the better writer. We propose two additional explanatory factors, namely, that Hebb offered a synthesis of the associative and the cognitive, and that psychology in the decades following the publication of "The Organization of Behavior" was hungry for just such a synthesis.

Keywords: cell assembly, central autonomous process, engram, equipotentiality, Hebb, Hebbian learning, Lashley, localization, memory trace, nativism, reverberatory circuit, Vanuxem Lectures

10(081) LASHLEY'S LEGACY
Reply to Kaplan & Fu on Orbach on Lashley-Hebb
Jack Orbach
Department of Psychology
Queens College
Flushing NY, 11367

Jorbach@worldnet.att.net
Abstract: In their review of 'The Neuropsychological Theories of Lashley and Hebb,' Kaplan & Fu suggest that I did not accord Hebb the recognition he deserved. They try to explain the popularity of his 1949 monograph by citing Hebb's associative perspective, something that was anathema to Lashley. On the other hand, Lashley contributed the reverberatory circuit to neuropsychological theory. In addition, I cite Lashley's latter day conceptual legacies to neuro-psychological theory.

Keywords: cell assembly, central autonomous process, engram, equipotentiality, Hebb, Hebbian learning, Lashley, localization, memory trace, nativism, reverberatory circuit, Vanuxem Lectures

11(008) HEBB VERSUS LASHLEY: THE PRACTITIONER'S CASE
Book Review of Orbach on Lashley-Hebb
Daniel J Amit
Dept of Physics,
Universita' di Roma, La Sapienza
http://racah.phys.huji.ac.il/~damita/

amit@jupiter.roma1.infn.it
Abstract: Lashley made important contributions but was less prescient than Hebb, especially concerning the importance of synaptic learning and localization. On balance, it is Hebb's view that has prevailed.

Keywords: cell assembly, central autonomous process, engram, equipotentiality, Hebb, Hebbian learning, Lashley, localization, memory trace, nativism, reverberatory circuit, Vanuxem Lectures

11(016) LASHLEY'S WRITING STYLE
Reply to Amit on Orbach on Lashley-Hebb
Jack Orbach
Department of Psychology
Queens College
Flushing NY, 11367

jorbach@worldnet.att.net
Abstract: Amit's enthusiasm for Lashley's writings on neuropsychological theory is noted and discussed.

Keywords: cell assembly, central autonomous process, engram, equipotentiality, Hebb, Hebbian learning, Lashley, localization, memory trace, nativism, reverberatory circuit, Vanuxem Lectures

11(025) NEUROPSYCHOLOGY EVOLVING
Book Review of Orbach on Lashley-Hebb
Bryan Kolb
Department of Psychology & Neuroscience
University of Lethbridge
Lethbridge, AB,
T1K 3M4 CANADA

Kolb@uleth.ca
Abstract: Orbach seeks to provide a retrospective view of the role of Lashley and Hebb in the development of neuropsychological theory and, in particular, the Hebb synapse. The book provides a unique resource for neurohistorians interested in the origin of ideas that have shaped neuropsychological thinking for the second half of the century. One theme throughout Orbach's notes is that Lashley did not receive the credit he deserved. Although Orbach's point is well taken, I was not entirely convinced, any more than I am that Darwin received more than his share of credit for his theory of evolution.

Keywords: cell assembly, central autonomous process, engram, equipotentiality, Hebb, Hebbian learning, Lashley, localization, memory trace, nativism, reverberatory circuit, Vanuxem Lectures

11(026) HEBB AND LASHLEY: CONVERGENCES AND DIVERGENCES
IN LIGHT OF RECENT NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL FINDINGS
Book Review of Orbach on Lashley-Hebb
Jaap Murre
University of Amsterdam
Department of Psychology
Roetersstraat 15
1018 WB Amsterdam The Netherlands

Antonino Raffone
University of Rome "La Sapienza"
Department of Psychology
Via dei Marsi, 78
I 00185 Rome Italy

jaap@murre.org raffone@uniroma1.it
Abstract: We focus on some similarities and differences between Lashley's and Hebb's positions regarding the reverberatory circuit, memory traces, and local versus global patterns. We also consider the implications of their views for current research, comparing some of their agreements and disagreements in the light of recent experimental findings and models.

Keywords: cell assembly, central autonomous process, engram, equipotentiality, Hebb, Hebbian learning, Lashley, localization, memory trace, nativism, reverberatory circuit, Vanuxem Lectures

11(027) FROM BEHAVIOR TO BRAIN AND BACK AGAIN
Book Review of Orbach on Lashley-Hebb
A. Charles Catania
Department of Psychology
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
1000 Hilltop Circle
Baltimore, MD 21250 USA

catania@umbc.edu
Abstract: Orbach's examination of the work of Lashley and Hebb is of great historical interest, but it illustrates a vast gap, both past and present, between research on the nervous system and research on behavior. Grand strides in the neurosciences have taken place with insufficient attention to the behavior of the organisms that are the hosts of nervous systems. In the final analysis, nervous systems are selected by evolutionary contingencies on the basis of the behavior that they engender. If we fail to understand the behavior, we will probably also fail to understand how the brain serves it. As we move away from the Decade of the Brain into the Decade of Behavior, those unfamiliar with the properties of behavior will be at a disadvantage when they seek its sources in the brain, because they will not know what they should be looking for. Lashley was on the right track when he used the properties of serial order in behavior to make inferences about the nervous system, but too often both Lashley and Hebb speculated about the nervous system without firm grounding in what was even then known about learning and behavior. We now know much more, and neuroscience and the science of behavior have each reached a point at which a modern synthesis holds great promise.

Keywords: cell assembly, central autonomous process, engram, equipotentiality, Hebb, Hebbian learning, Lashley, localization, memory trace, nativism, reverberatory circuit, Vanuxem Lectures

11(047) FROM LASHLEY TO HEBB:
THE DEVELOPMENT OF A BIOPHYSICAL THEORY OF LEARNING
Book Review of Orbach on Lashley-Hebb
GŁnther Palm
Neural Information Processing
University of Ulm
D-89069 Ulm, Germany
http://www.informatik.uni-ulm.de/ni/mitarbeiter/GPalm_e.html

palm@neuro.informatik.uni-ulm.de
Abstract: Orbach presents Lashley's ideas much more extensively and coherently than Hebb's. Most interesting is the discussion of Lashley's ideas vis-a-vis Hebb's "Organisation of Behavior".

Keywords: cell assembly, central autonomous process, engram, equipotentiality, Hebb, Hebbian learning, Lashley, localization, memory trace, nativism, reverberatory circuit, Vanuxem Lectures

11(048) CONTINUING EVOLUTION OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY
Reply to Kolb on Orbach on Lashley-Hebb
Jack Orbach
Department of Psychology
Queens College
Flushing, NY, 11367

Jorbach@worldnet.att.net
Abstract: Contributions of Hebb and Lashley to neuropsychological theory are reexamined.

Keywords: cell assembly, central autonomous process, engram, equipotentiality, Hebb, Hebbian learning, Lashley, localization, memory trace, nativism, reverberatory circuit, Vanuxem Lectures

11(049) A SYNTHESIS OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY AND A SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOR?
Reply to Catania on Orbach on Lashley-Hebb
Jack Orbach
Department of Psychology
Queens College
Flushing, NY, 11367 U.S.A.

Jorbach@worldnet.att.net.
Abstract: I certainly welcome Catania's call for a rapprochement between neuropsychology and what he calls a science of behavior. Of course, I cannot speak for Lashley or Hebb.

Keywords: cell assembly, central autonomous process, engram, equipotentiality, Hebb, Hebbian learning, Lashley, localization, memory trace, nativism, reverberatory circuit, Vanuxem Lectures

11(050) CONVERGENCES AND DIVERGENCES OF THEORY IN LASHLEY AND HEBB
Reply to Murre & Raffone on Orbach on Lashley-Hebb
Jack Orbach
Department of Psychology
Queens College
Flushing, NY, 11367
U.S.A.

Jorbach@worldnet.att.net.
Abstract: Comments on "neurons are not inert and static" and the neuropsychological origins of the reverberatory circuit in the cerebral cortex.

Keywords: cell assembly, central autonomous process, engram, equipotentiality, Hebb, Hebbian learning, Lashley, localization, memory trace, nativism, reverberatory circuit, Vanuxem Lectures

11(119) HEBB'S THEORY AND LASHLEY'S ANALOGY
Reply to Palm on Orbach on Lashley-Hebb
Jack Orbach
Department of Psychology
Queens College
Flushing, NY 11367
U.S.A.

Jorbach@worldnet.att.net
Abstract: Lashley saw himself as offering no more than analogies, not theories, in his quest for the neural mechanism of the reduplicated engram in the cerebral cortex.

Keywords: cell assembly, central autonomous process, engram, equipotentiality, Hebb, Hebbian learning, Lashley, localization, memory trace, nativism, reverberatory circuit, Vanuxem Lectures

12(026) FOUNDERS OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY - WHO IS IGNORED?
Book Review of Orbach on Lashley-Hebb
Moshe Abeles
Dept. of Physiology, and The Interdisciplinary Center for Neural
Computations
The Hebrew University
Jerusalem, Israel.

Abeles@vms.huji.ac.il
Abstract: The book has two parts. Part I deals with the personal relations between Lashley and Hebb, with Lashley's refusal to take part in Hebb's book, with issues of priority on ideas like reverberations, cell assemblies and modifiable synapses. This part of the book attempts to explain why is it that so much credit is given to Hebb and too little to Lashley. Part II is a collection of papers of Lashley some of which were not published anywhere else. Part I will be most important for those interested in history and sociology of science and of Neuropsychology in particular. Part II is a treasure for anybody interested in mechanisms for higher brain functions.

Keywords: Neuropsychology, history of science, cell assembly, reverberation, modifiable synapses.

13(021) FOUNDERS OF EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY: LASHLEY PRECEDED HEBB
Reply to Abeles on Orbach on Lashley-Hebb
Jack Orbach
Department of Psychology
Queens College
Flushing, NY, 11367
U.S.A.

jorbach@worldnet.att.net
Abstract: Who is the founder of twentieth century experimental neuropsychology? Lashley is given the nod, though Hebb's conception of an empirically assembled nerve net (the cell assembly, 1949) became a seminal idea in theoretical neuropsychology.

Keywords: Lashley, Hebb, neuropsychology, cell assembly, reverberatory circuit, history of neuropsychology, Lashley's lesson, Hebb's rule.